Indian J Sex Transm Dis Indian J Sex Transm Dis
Official Publication of the Indian Association for the Study of Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Indian J Sex Transm Dis
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Year : 2017  |  Volume : 38  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 1-9

Pre- and post-sexual exposure prophylaxis of HIV: An update

Department of Skin-VD, Baroda Medical College, Vadodara, Gujarat, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Sheethal K Jose
Department of Skin-VD, SSG Hospital, Vadodara, Gujarat
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/ijstd.IJSTD_26_17

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Pitfalls in current HIV prevention strategies include late HIV testing, vulnerability among youth and females; lack of emphasis on treatment, low acceptance of circumcision, and nonavailability of protective vaccines. Continuing high-risk sexual behavior, forceful sex, coercive and nonconsensual sex, rape, and unprotected sexual activities make women the most vulnerable to acquisition of sexually transmitted infection/HIV and necessitates a more radical approach of prevention in high-risk individuals who do not have HIV. Preexposure prophylaxis is defined as the administration of antiretroviral drugs to an uninfected person before potential HIV exposure to reduce the risk of infection and continued during risk. The rationale of this approach is to administer preventive dose of drug(s) before exposure to HIV so the moment virus enters the body, HIV replication is inhibited and HIV is not able to establish permanent infection. Postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) following potential sexual exposure is an important form of nonoccupational PEP which is an emergency intervention to abort HIV acquisition arising from exposure to HIV-infected blood or potentially infectious bodily fluids following sexual exposure.

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