Indian J Sex Transm Dis Indian J Sex Transm Dis
Official Publication of the Indian Association for the Study of Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Indian J Sex Transm Dis
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Year : 2021  |  Volume : 42  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 138-143

Bone health in HIV-infected children on antiretroviral therapy: An Indian study

1 Department of Pediatrics, Pediatric HIV Clinic, B J Wadia Hospital for Children, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India
2 Department of Clinical Research, Bone Health Clinic, ICMR National Institute of Research in Reproductive Health, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Ira Shah
1/B Saguna, 271/B Street, Francis Road, Vile Parle (w), Mumbai - 400 056, Maharashtra
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/ijstd.IJSTD_35_19

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Aim: The aim of this study is to determine the bone health in HIV-infected children on antiretroviral therapy (ART). Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out in 31 HIV-infected children aged 5–18 years. Each patient underwent testing for serum calcium, phosphorous, alkaline phosphatase, and 25(OH) Vitamin D. Bone mineral density (BMD) was done using a DXA scanner. Patients' z scores for BMD of the lumbar spine and left femoral neck were noted. The factors associated with low BMD were analyzed. Results: Seven (22.6%) children had a low spinal BMD and 6 (19.4%) had low femoral neck BMD. Low serum calcium was seen in 6 (19.4%) patients and high alkaline phosphatase was seen in 15 (48.4%) patients. Low serum 25 (OH) Vitamin D levels were present in 30 (96.8%) patients, whereas all the patients had normal serum phosphorous. Duration of ART in those with low spinal BMD was 4.6 ± 3.4 years as compared to 6.4 ± 3.2 years in those with normal spinal BMD (P = 0.235) and for low left femoral neck BMD was 3.9 ± 2 years as compared to 6.5 ± 3.4 years for those with normal femoral neck BMD (P = 0.031). Mean 25(OH) Vitamin D levels were 8.4 ± 2.8 ng/ml in those with low femoral neck BMD as compared to 13.6 ± 8.3 ng/ml in those with normal femoral neck BMD (P = 0.015). Type of ART did not have any association with low BMD. Conclusion: Over 95% of HIV-infected children have low 25(OH) Vitamin D levels which affect the appendicular BMD. BMD is affected more in children who have been on ART for a shorter time. No particular ART regimen is associated with low BMD.

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