Indian Journal of Sexually Transmitted Diseases and AIDS
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year
: 2023  |  Volume : 44  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 6--10

A prospective study to estimate the incidence and pattern of adverse drug reactions to first-line antiretroviral therapy (tenofovir, efavirenz, and lamivudine)


Boby Singh1, Ankur Guliani1, Vinod Hanumanthu1, Tarun Narang1, Sunil Dogra1, Sanjeev Handa1, Aman Sharma2 
1 Department of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprology, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India
2 Department of Internal Medicine, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Tarun Narang
Department of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprology, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Sector 12, Chandigarh - 160 012
India

Background: Antiretroviral drugs are efficacious but are associated with long-term toxicities, drug interactions, and emergence of drug resistance. Objective: To study the incidence and pattern of adverse drug reactions in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients receiving first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) (tenofovir, efavirenz, and lamivudine (TEL) which was introduced by NACO in 2013. Materials and Methods: A prospective, single-center observational study that included 135 treatment-naive HIV patients who were started on fixed drug once-daily regimen (TEL). At baseline, detailed clinical history, body weight, waist–hip ratio, complete blood count, liver and renal function test, CD4 cell count were performed. Clinical monitoring for cutaneous, neuropsychiatric, and gastrointestinal side effects was done every month along with laboratory monitoring and anthropometric measurement for every 6 months. CD4 counts were measured at baseline and end of the study at 12 months. Results: Out of 135 participants, 89 (65.9%) were males and 46 (34%) were females. The mean age and the mean duration of illness at inclusion were 35.10 ± 8.97 years and 1.2 ± 0.6 years, respectively. The mean increase in weight at baseline and at 12 months (57.55 ± 6.56 to 64.04 ± 8.2) was statistically significant (95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.35–8.62, P < 0.001). The mean CD4 counts at baseline were 309.73 ± 118.44 and increased after 12 months of treatment to 421 ± 129.4 which was statistically significant (95% CI: 81.54–140.99, P < 0.001). The mean difference in platelet count was statistically significant between baseline and 12 months (95% CI: 10.32–46.13, P = 0.002). The mean difference in serum urea levels at baseline and at 6 months (95% CI: 0.60–1.61, P < 0.001) as well as 12 months were statistically significant (95% CI: 0.08–1.03, P = 0.02). The mean increase in serum creatinine at baseline (0.75 ± 0.12) and at 12 months (0.97 ± 0.16) was also significant (95% CI: 0.21–0.28, P < 0.001). There was a significant difference between mean creatinine clearance at baseline and at 12 months (109.9 ± 13.75 to 99.33 ± 12.52, P < 0.0001). One patient discontinued treatment due to adverse effects while two patients were shifted to second-line antiretroviral treatment. Limitations: Small sample size, single-center study and short follow-up period, long-term toxicities were not appreciated. Conclusion: Fixed drug combination with TEL as a first-line ART for HIV is a safe regime as we observed minimal side effects with current regimen.


How to cite this article:
Singh B, Guliani A, Hanumanthu V, Narang T, Dogra S, Handa S, Sharma A. A prospective study to estimate the incidence and pattern of adverse drug reactions to first-line antiretroviral therapy (tenofovir, efavirenz, and lamivudine).Indian J Sex Transm Dis 2023;44:6-10


How to cite this URL:
Singh B, Guliani A, Hanumanthu V, Narang T, Dogra S, Handa S, Sharma A. A prospective study to estimate the incidence and pattern of adverse drug reactions to first-line antiretroviral therapy (tenofovir, efavirenz, and lamivudine). Indian J Sex Transm Dis [serial online] 2023 [cited 2023 Sep 23 ];44:6-10
Available from: https://ijstd.org/article.asp?issn=2589-0557;year=2023;volume=44;issue=1;spage=6;epage=10;aulast=Singh;type=0